Europe produces annually 63.8 Mt/year of meat and 160.1 Mt/year of milk. The case study on meat and the dairy sector will be held in Ireland (University of Limerick) and the low countries (Belgium and Netherlands) (University of Ghent). Dairy systems will be used as reference products which will allow as to focus on milk production but also on animal/meat losses at farm. Milk production in Ireland is primarily pasture based and seasonal, so milk production varies +/- 90% between peak output (May/June) and Nov to February when cows are dried-off and milk output is at a minimum. Milk production in the low countries is relatively flat (+/- 10%) over the year with grass and other fodder/concentrates transported to the animals.